JIMKI: Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Kedokteran Indonesia https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki <p>JIMKI: Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Kedokteran Indonesia (<a href="http://issn.pdii.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1579071025&amp;1&amp;&amp;">ISSN: 2302-6391</a>)&nbsp; is a national level, free access, health journal publication platform under the auspices of the Scientific Analysis and Development Agency of the Indonesian Medical Student Senate Association (BAPIN-ISMKI). JIMKI accepts publications of scientific papers and research results conducted by undergraduate, master and doctoral medical students. Every year, JIMKI publishes 2-3 editions. Currently, JIMKI accepts manuscripts in the form of literature reviews, case reports, refresher articles on medical science, practical instructions, and advertorials. Every work submitted to JIMKI will be edited by a major partner and will go through the editorial process in force.</p> <p><br>Research in the field of medicine basically aims to collect, analyze, and synthesize information or data that is used in medical-clinical, medical-social planning, or for the development of medical science itself. Clinical research is carried out to determine natural clinical phenomena, explain the relationship between various events, solve clinical problems, and show a certain effect. Therefore, JIMKI is here as a solution to the urgency of publishing research results in medical clusters, especially for medical students who have a duty as long-life learner</p> en-US bapin@ismki.or.id (Faisal Rohmadhiyaul Haq) molicsm26@gmail.com (Rivaldo Go) Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS RISK FACTORS AND VITAMIN D SERUM LEVEL ON TUBERCULOSIS PATIENS https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/415 <p>Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis which attacks various organs. Tuberculosis has risk factors for age, sex, nutritional status, HIV infection, history of diabetes, corticosteroid use, and history of primary TB. Prolonged tuberculosis causes a decrease in vitamin D levels in blood serum.<br>Objective: This study aims to look at the association of risk factors to serum vitamin D levels in TB sufferers<br>Method: Research conducted is analytic with cross-sectional design. The sample of the study were 30 patients with TB in Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Teladan and Amplas primary health center Medan who had met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. <br>Results: Pearson correlation test showed there was an inverse correlation between BMI and vitamin D levels (p = 0.007; r = -0.482) and there was no significant relationship between age and vitamin D levels. Fisher exact test found no association between vitamin D levels on corticosteroid use (p = 1,000), history of diabetes (p = 0.469), HIV coinfection, and primary TB (p = 1,000). <br>Conclusion: In conclusion, there is an inverse correlation between the BMI value and vitamin D levels. No association was found between vitamin D levels and age, corticosteroid use, and history of diabetes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fadlan Hafizh Harahap ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/415 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 05:42:48 +0000 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION AND THE INCIDENCE OF DEPRESSION https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/475 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> <em>Depression is a mood disorder that causes loss of motivation to stay or to do daily activities. Research on depression prevalence indicates that approximately 4.4% of the worldwide population suffers it. The mechanism in which depression occurred due to fast foods is the excessive fat content disturbs neurogenesis in the brain. This research is carried out to look into the connection among fast food intake with the incidence of depression.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Method: </em></strong><em>An analytical study with a cross-sectional design is the method chosen to conduct this research. The samples include college students from the Faculty of Medicine in University of Sumatera Utara admitted in 2018 and acquired with total sampling. The tools used in this research were the CES-D and FFQ questionnaire.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>The incidence of depression among applicants in 2018 was 48.3%.</em><em>The statistical calculations indicates that there is a significant relationship between fast food consumption and depression (p=0,043); but not significant to family income (p=0,684) and physical activity (p=0,289).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: Excessive consumption of junk food can increase the risk of depression.</em></p> Kevin Lim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/475 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 05:43:42 +0000 CORRELATION BETWEEN CLUSTER OF DIFFERENTIATION 4 (CD4) WITH RADIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TB-HIV PATIENS https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/423 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><em>: Tuberculosis (TB) is an opportunistic infection the most often found in</em> <em>Human Immunodeficiency Virus</em> <em>(</em><em>HIV</em><em>)</em><em> infection and is the leading cause of death among Orang Dengan HIV / AIDS </em><em>(</em><em>ODHA</em><em>)</em><em>. The risk of TB transmission is 26 to 31 times greater in people with HIV than people without HIV. TB-HIV patients tend to have negative acid-resistant bacteria (AFB) laboratory tests and atypical radiological images. Both of these become obstacles in determining the diagnosis and management. The heavier level of immunosuppression in TB-HIV patients as indicated by a decrease in the level of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), the less characteristic the radiological picture was. CD4 count is associated with clinical manifestations of HIV patients that can be seen from radiological images, so that it can be used in accelerating diagnosis and management of TB-HIV.</em> <em>This study aims to determine the relationship between CD4 and the radiological picture of TB-HIV patients at PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital of Surakarta.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><em>: This study used a cross sectional research design and was conducted from November to December 2020 at the PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital of Surakarta. The number of research subjects as many as 30 patients who were taken with a non-probability purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: Fisher's exact test showed no association between CD4 cell count and radiological features of TB-HIV patients (p = 1,000).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: There is no significant association between CD4 cell count and radiological features of TB-HIV patients.</em></p> Angiesta Pinakesty ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/423 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 05:47:34 +0000 KOMBUCHA: THE UTILIZATION OF GUT-BRAIN AXIS MECHANISM IN THE PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/333 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>COVID-9 pandemic brings a devastating change on every aspect of everyday life around the world. The change that is happening has been proven to act as a risk factor for many mental illnesses, including depression. Many efforts that has been done mainly focuses on curative aspect of depression and only a small portion of it focuses on the preventive aspect. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This literature review uses a variety of articles sourced from several online publication databases such as National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Garba Rujukan Digital (GARUDA), and Google Scholar. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Discussion: </em></strong><em>Many clinical studies has proved that there are indeed a connection between gut microbiote witf the nervous system which researchers called Gut-Brain Axis (GBA). Gut microbiote plays a key role in maintaining GBA homeostasis and its relation with one’s mental health. Probiotic consumption is one of many efforts that people do to maintain that homeostasis in order to maintain their mental health. Made of tea, sugar, and Symbitoic Culture of Bacteria and Yeasts (SCOBY) , kombucha is a fermented beverage that has been proven to bring positve impacts on gut microbiote with more than 50 probiotics and beneficial molecules.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: Utilization of kombucha to maintain GBA has the potential to completes the fight against depression especially in the aspect of prevention</em></p> Putu Diah Ananda Putri Atmaja, Abiyyu Didar Haq, Visakha Vidyadevi Wiguna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/333 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE POTENTIAL OF SIRNA ENCAPSULATED BY NANOPARTICLE AS SILENCING AGENT fOR SFLT-1 AND NRF-2 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/433 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong><em>ABSTRACT </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Maternal death could happen during pregnancy or termination of pregnancy. In 2017, there were around 295.000 maternal death around the world. Indonesia itself is a country with the third largest maternal mortality rate in Southeast Asia. One of the biggest cause of maternal death is preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is usually experienced by pregnant mother with a pregnancy period more than 20 weeks, where there is an elevated blood pressure, proteinuria, and many complications. Nowadays, the only definitive preeclampsia treatment is termination of pregnancy which could cause many bad things to infant, likes preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and intrauterine fetal death. Plenty of reserach </em></p> <p><em>shows that small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule has a potential to become a treatment agent for preeclampsia Therefore, this literature review intends to analyze the potential of siRNA as an innovation of preeclampsia treatment. <strong>Method: </strong>This literature review was carried out on articles from several databases such as NCBI pubmed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and Clinical Key with the keywords use are “Nanoparticle”, “Nrf2”, “Preeclampsia”, “sFlt1”, and “siRNA”. <strong>Discussion: </strong>6 major journals that correlate with the aim of this literature review were yielded. siRNA molecule can do a silencing to Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) dan Nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf-2), components that are contribute to pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Furthermore, stabilization of this formulation can be increased by encapsulating the siRNA in a nanoparticle. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The formulation of siRNA against sFlt-1 and Nrf-2 can be a novel formulation of therapeutic agent to treat preeclampsia effectively.</em></p> Sanjaya Winarta, Raimond Loa, Renaldo Thosal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/433 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PITAVASTATIN COMBINED WITH PLGA DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM AS A POTENTIAL ADJUVANT THERAPY FOR CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/453 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> During COVID-19 pandemic, people’s mobility is decreased. This phenomenon leads to the increase of sedentary lifestyle hence increasing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. One of the disease that has a strong connection with sedentary lifestyle is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease that causes death contributing as much as 12% of all death in the world. Percutaneous</em><em> coronary intervention</em><em> (PCI) therapy in the acute phase of myocardial infarct can lower the infarct area but the risk of ischemic-reperfusion injury limits its therapeutic effect. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This literature review uses journal </em><em>articles </em><em>that are sourced from online databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar. The literature search utilize</em><em>d</em> <em>several keywords such as </em>“<em>pitavastatin”, “drug delivery system”, “nanoparticle”, “PLGA”, “myocardial infarction”, “ischemic-reperfusion injury”</em><em>. The search yielded 34 relevant literatures which used in this literature review</em></p> <p><strong><em>Discussion: </em></strong><em>Pitavastatin is a statin which possesses a significant effect on LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C. Furthermore, pitavastatin also possess cardioprotective effect on ischemic-reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing intracellular antioxidant.&nbsp; PLGA nanoparticle is proven to increase the therapeutic effect of pitavastatin because of its ability to deliver timely and its anti-inflammatory effect. . </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Pitavastatin encapsulated by PLGA nanoparticle has the ability to prevent ischemic-reperfusion injury. Current therapeutic strategy has not been able to deliver pitavastatin into the infarct site adequately in the timely manner hence PLGA needed as drug delivery system.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Visakha Vidyadevi Wiguna, Abiyyu Didar Haq, Luh Gde Sri Adnyani Suari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/453 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE POTENTIAL OF MORINGA OLEIFERA EXTRACT TO TREAT GASTROENTERITIS https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/460 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><em>Bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease in the tropics in the form of inflammation of the stomach and intestines due to several bacteria, such as Salmonella,Campylobacter, Shigella, E. coli, Vibrio, Yersinia, and Listeria with symptoms of diarrhoea without or with vomiting, and frequent fever. Gastroenteritis is a global disease with the highest prevalence in the agricultural community, especially farmers and fishermen. </em><em>This reasearch t</em><em>o determine the potential of leaf and seed extract Moringa oleifera as an alternative therapy for bacterial gastroenteritis. Methods: The journal writing method uses a literature review approach derived from the analysis and synthesis of various related references. The author selects journals full text and books published in the last ten years maximum through several databases, namely PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Cochrane with the keywords: diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, and Moringa oleifera. Results: seed and leaf extract Moringa oleifera played a role in preventing some of the effects of the pathogenesis of diarrhoea due to bacterial infection. Methanol, N-hexane, ethyl acetate, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids from seed and leaf extract Moringa oleifera have antibacterial effects. The content of quercetin has an anti-inflammatory effect. The content of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids has antidiarrheal activity. The content of ethanol and tannins has an antiulcer effect. This potential can help cure patients with bacterial gastroenteritis.</em></p> Yemima Billyana Kusbijantoro, Nabila Atika Naufizdihar, Arga Setyo Adji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/460 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE ANALYSIS OF HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS AS A PROMISING THERAPY IN OVERCOMING CYTOKINE STORM IN COVID-19 PATIENTS https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/464 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that was recently characterized as a pandemic. One of the complications of this disease is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) which is caused by cytokine storm. Current treatments for COVID-19 with ARDS are only symptomatic and have many weaknesses. Therefore, new therapeutic agent for COVID-19 is still needed. This literature review is made to determine the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) as a novel therapeutic agent in COVID-19 patients. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong><em>This literature review is based on articles from several medical databases such as NCBI Pubmed, Elsevier, and Google Scholar, with the keywords used are “ARDS”, “COVID-19”, “Cytokine Storm”, “hUC-MSCs”, and “Stem cell”. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Discussion: </em></strong><em>There are 5 major studies that correlate with the aim of this literature which were analyzed systematically. Cytokine storm is an </em><em>excessive immune response caused by the increase of proinflammatory cytokines that can cause organ injury, especially in the lung. On the other hand, hUC-MSCs, a mesenchymal stem cell derived from human umbilical cord, can overcome the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients by reducing the proinflammatory cytokine, improving lung inflammatory consolidation, increase oxygenation index and increasing the recovery time.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em> hUC-MSCs have the potential to become a promising therapeutic agent to overcome the COVID-19 infection.</em></p> Sanjaya Winarta, Megan Janice Nawing, Rivaldo Go ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/464 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PROBIOTIC POTENCY AS INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES REGULATOR IN IMPROVING COVID-19 PATIENT'S CLINICAL OUTCOME https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/456 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><em>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several recent studies have shown that cytokine storm, robust viral replication, and delayed Interferon type 1 (IFN-I) signaling contribute to the severity of COVID-19 . The slow response of IFN-I leads to the increased accumulation of pathogenic monocytes resulting in pulmonary immunopathology, vascular leakage, and suboptimal T cell response. In addition, other studies have reported that administration of probiotics can mediate antiviral responses against human coronavirus. We discuss about the potential of probiotics to regulate cytokine storms and the production of type-1 Interferon&nbsp;&nbsp; that implicates to clinical improvement in COVID-19 patients. This review is made from the results of a qualitative synthesis from various valid sources. The results show that several types of probiotics can supress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in cytokine storms and enhance the production of type-1 IFN. Through the mechanism of preventing cytokine storms and increasing type-1 production, probiotics are expected to become a regulator of immune system that can improve clinical performance in COVID-19 patients. Although further detailed research on a larger scale is still required to prove that probiotics can be a solution for the treatment of viral infections. </em></p> WILLIAM SUCIANGTO, Ahmad Taufik Fadillah Zainal, Nada Indira Ramadhani Nasrum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/456 Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:21:17 +0000 HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DERIVATIVE SUBRETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL TRANSPLANTATION AS A TREATMENT FOR DRY-TYPE MACULAR https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/463 <p>Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), is the fourth disease which causes blindness in the world, will potentially increase in 2020. Therefore, alternative treatment is needed to be developed, such as Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium (hESC-RPE) transplantation in a subretinal layer. The purpose of this literature review is to identify AMD pathogenesis, especially dry type, to know the impact of hESC-RPE transplantation towards acuity of vision, and to understand its therapeutic effect, safety, also tolerability based on the literature cited. Articles were collected by google search engine through Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Proquest, and Springer link. Inclusion criteria are literature that was published between 2010-2020, clinical trial study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. the topic of these sources is focused on regenerative therapy in AMD patients. Whereas exclusion criteria are literature that published under 2010. According to our research, hESC-RPE transplantation in a subretinal layer can increase the acuity of vision in dry-type AMD patients by improving RPE pigmentation, which protects its photoreceptor cells. Safety and tolerability are proof that there are no abnormalities in proliferation and immunity. In conclusion, these findings are beneficial in the improvement quality life of AMD patients. Therefore, in the future, subretinal hESC-RPE can be effective in the alternative treatment of dry-typed AMD patients.&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Thifan Satyagraha, Andhwika Afif Fahrezi, Rafi Annisa Ulum, Gibran Chandra Syarif Hidayatullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/463 Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:22:28 +0000 TOCILIZUMAB AS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY THERAPY IN OVERCOMING ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN COVID-19 PATIENTS https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/488 <p>Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a clinical manifestation of severe pneumonia is a major cause of death for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are treated in intensive care units (ICU). ARDS is triggered by cytokine storm. Cytokine storm is characterized by an increased in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β. Thus, IL-6 and IL-1 cytokine inhibitors in the form of monoclonal antibodies are needed to overcome this. This review of the scientific literature aims to identify the effect of monoclonal antibody therapy, which is focusing on the inhibitors of cytokines IL-6 (tocilizumab) and IL-1 (anakira) in patients with severe pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ) with clinical manifestations in the form of ARDS. The design used in the form of scientific literature review. Articles were collected via Google Scholar search engine through several data sources (Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Nature, Proquest, and Springer Link). Inclusion criteria used were literature sources published between 2011 – 2020&nbsp; in the form of research articles, systematic reviews, annual reports, and/or books. Meanwhile, the exclusion criterion used was literature sources under 2011. Based on article search results, tocilizumab can efficiently improve clinical status and reduce the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients with ARDS. Even so, tocilizumab can increase the risk of infection and the evidence obtained by the authors was not enough to support the administration of tocilizumab outside of clinical trials. Thus, the safety and side effects of monoclonal antibodies need to be further investigated.</p> Muhammad Thifan Satyagraha, Graceanne Sheridan, Vito Etenio Ade Laryan, Gibran Chandra Syarif Hidayatullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/488 Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:22:54 +0000 DISSECTING FASXIATOR POTENTIAL AS ALTERNATIVE ANTICOAGULANT BY PREVENTING THROMBOSIS THROUGH INHIBITION OF CONTACT ACTIVATION SYSTEM https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/476 <p><em>Thrombosis, an imbalanced interaction between blood components, contributes greatly to deaths that occur worldwide.</em> <em>Therefore, treatment that can reverse the condition of blood clotting and hypercoagulability is essential.</em> <em>However, the drugs used to treat thrombosis-based diseases have side effects that can be seen in short and long term, particularly an increased risk of bleeding.</em> <em>Therefore, an alternative treatment is needed to overcome the problem of thrombosis without causing significant side effects that can endanger the lives of anticoagulant drug users.</em> <em>The solution to this problem is none other than nature provided, a protease inhibitor obtained through the venom of the Bungarus fasciatus snake, Fasxiator.</em></p> <p><em>Fasxiator can dilute blood through the inhibition of Contact Activation System (CAS) mechanism, specifically inhibiting factor XIa.</em> <em>The advantage of blood clotting inhibition through the CAS method is that it does not affect normal hemostasis, thereby minimizing the bleeding problems that are common with other anticoagulant drugs.</em> <em>Animal studies in rats demonstrated properties of high target selectivity for factor XIa, effectiveness, and high safety profile of Fasxiator, enabling the application of Fasxiator as an anticoagulant in the future.</em></p> <p><em>Therefore, based on the discussion that has been explained above, Fasxiator has the potential to be used as an anticoagulant on humans in the future due to its high selectivity, effectivity, and safety in previous animal studies.</em></p> Nadine Aurelie ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/476 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 INTEGRATION OF E-NOSE BASED BREATH-PRINT TEST ANALYSIS AS A NOVEL SOLUTION FOR EARLY DETECTION OF HOUSEHOLD AIR-POLLUTION RELATED CHRONIC PULMONARY OBSTRUCTIVE DISEASE DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/478 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Although 64 million people has suffered from COPD, studies have shown that 70% of COPD patients worldwide was underdiagnosed due to many reasons. Adequate and fast detection are crucial in determining prognosis of this disease. However, many lungs function test still have disadvantages and limitations. Covid-19 pandemic era has limited our mobility and increase the risk of household air-pollution exposure which increase the risk of COPD. Thus, alternative solutions are needed to detect and screened household air pollution related COPD patients as fast as possible. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Discussion: </em></strong><em>E-nose technology has been proven to effectively detects various respiratory diseases. This could be the alternative solution to provide COPD diagnostic tests which usually use spirometry with its disadvantages. Breath-print based VOC detection could be sensor biomarker for respiratory diseases, even COPD. If this is integrated with primary care systems in Indonesia during Covid-19 pandemic era, it could be the solution in early detection of COPD.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: Integration of e-nose based breath-print test is potential to be the solution of early and accurate detection of COPD which are non-invasive and patient-well with its advantages.</em></p> Ayers Gilberth Ivano Kalaij ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://bapin-ismki.e-journal.id/jimki/article/view/478 Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000